Current Screening and Diagnostic Approaches of Retinoblastoma in Limited Setting
As the most common intraocular malignancy in children, retinoblastoma poses a vision, globe, and life-threatening risk and hence requires thorough evaluation and surveillance. While the disease is one of the most curable malignancies in established countries, children of lower-middle-income countries are not so fortunate, especially those with familial history of retinoblastoma. The delay of diagnosis proposes a grave prognosis, thus screening is a must. This study aimed to review the literature on various screening programs and applications described for the early detection of retinoblastoma, especially in a setting where genetic examination performance is limited. A literature search across PubMed®, ProQuest, and EbscoHost (MEDLINE Full text) with the topic of current methods and programs of retinoblastoma screening in neonates, infants, and children were carried out denoting various guideline and recommendations but the implementation is not uniform. Examination under anesthesia and red-reflex tests are among the most frequently conducted but the practices vastly vary especially in a place with low resources. Recent updates in mobile phone freeware should be rigorously upgraded due to its current inadequate sensitivity and specificity in detecting retinoblastoma but pose a promising future for retinoblastoma screening and diagnosis, especially in lower-middle-income countries.
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